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Dr. Benaouda Bensaid, Malaysia International Islamic University, MALAYSIA
Spiritual and Moral Reform Of Muslim Inmates: The Nursi Model
Abstract. The paper identifies ideas of racism and nationalism to be one of the main reasons behind moral corruption and social, political as well as economic injustice prevalent in the modern world, and, through analyzing the thought of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi on nationalism and racism, offers some solutions to bring love, peace and harmony to humankind instead of widespread injustice, inequality, hatred and enmity.
During the last fifty years since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, the international community has made some important advances in the fight against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. National and international laws have been enacted and numerous international human rights instruments, particularly a treaty to ban racial discrimination, have been adopted.[i] Progress has been made -witness the defeat of apartheid in South Africa. Yet, the dream of a world free of racial hatred and bias remains only half fulfilled, declares the World Conference Against Racism.[ii]
No doubt, the present picture of the modern world does not provoke any optimism for peace and concord among various nations in the near future. The problem of racism remains being one of the main calamities in the 21th century. In the recent years Europe is observing an alarming resurgence in xenophobia and racial hatred towards ethnic minorities and different cultures. A short review from the Inter Press Service highlights the rise of neo-Nazism and fascism in Europe and suggests that “far from being a fringe activity, racism, violence and neo-nationalism have become normal in some communities.”[iii]
Along with European countries, Russia also has seen increased racial violence and xenophobia within the last few years. Today skinheads in Russia, especially in mega cities like Moscow, Saint-Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod, turned into a well-organized dangerous movement.[iv] A number of ethnically non-Russians, especially from Central Asia and Caucasus, were slaughtered by the Russian youth under the wrap of struggling for so-called “national purity.” In the year of 2008 alone the Russian skinheads murdered 109 people and wounded another 486. In 2009, they killed 71 and wounded 333.[v]
Jerusalem, the sacred place for Muslims, Christians and Jews, continues being the arena of racial hatred and discriminations. Observe what is going on today in Gaza. The situation of the Uygur people under the Chinese rule is alarming. The most recent bloody clashes between two Muslim nations, Uzbeks and Kyrgyzs, in the Osh region of Kyrgyzstan and many other bloody conflicts once more remind us about catastrophic outcomes from stirring of ethnic and racial sentiments.
What are the main motives behind racial hatred and antagonism towards “the others,” which exists even in the most civilized countries among the most educated nations? Are there any actual solutions for that problem? This paper is a humble attempt to recommend some solutions for global peace and harmony on the bases of the ideas of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. Before discussing recommendations, let us define racism and nationalism from the perspective of Western scholarship as well as the thought of Said Nursi.
Defining Racism and Nationalism
Racism or racialism,[ix] on the other hand, is commonly defined as a belief in the superiority of a particular race. The Encyclopaedia Britannica describes it as “any action, practice, or belief that reflects the racial worldview—the ideology that humans are divided into separate and exclusive biological entities called "races," that there is a causal link between inherited physical traits and traits of personality, intellect, morality, and other cultural behavioral features, and that some races are innately superior to others.”[x]
As a powerful ideology, racism has evolved in tandem with European exploration and conquest of much of the rest of the world, and especially after Christopher Columbus reached the Americas. As new peoples were encountered, fought, and ultimately subdued, theories about “race” began to develop, and these helped many to justify the differences in position and treatment of people whom they categorized as belonging to different races.[xi]
Said Nursi lived during the time when, on one hand, the idea of nationalism has became one of the principal ideologies in the modern world and began successfully spreading to the greater parts of the Muslim lands by Europe’s growing imperial reach as an alternative to the traditional ummah identity; on the other, the ghastly events of the Two World Wars once more demonstrated how devastating could be the consequences of the ideology of racism. Nursi’s ideas on the issues of racism and nationalism were comprehensively described in his Mektübat (“Letters”) under the “Third Topic” of the “Twenty-Sixth Letter,” which, in his own words, was written “in the tongue of the Old Said … who was involved in the social life of Islam” with the intention of serving the Qur’ān and forming a shield against the unjust attacks against it.[xii]
Said Nursi was one of the rare scholars, who were able to distinguish negative and positive aspects of nationalism (milliyetçilik) during its triumphant age in the modern world.[xiii] In Sünuhat (published in 1919) Nursi stated that the “awakening of nationalism is either positive, in which case it is aroused through compassion for one’s fellow men, and is the cause of mutual recognition and assistance; or it is negative, in which case, being aroused by racialist ambitions, it is the cause of antipathy and mutual hostility. And this Islam rejects.”[xiv]
Accordingly, possession of sentiments of belonging to a certain group for Nursi was a natural phenomenon and it “arises from an inner need of social life and is the cause of mutual assistance and solidarity; it ensures a beneficial strength; it is a means for further strengthening Islamic brotherhood.”[xv] However, if these natural sentiments begin demanding the superior loyalty of population over religion, or claim for superiority of a certain nation over other nations, it moves on its non-natural level, the negative level of nationalism or racism.
Nursi asserted that negative nationalism was not exclusively a recent phenomenon, but it, in the forms of tribalism or racialism, has existed throughout human history. It was Islam that abrogated nationalism and tribalism of the pre-Islamic Arabia and replaced such divisive tendencies with a holy, positive Islamic fervor.[xvi] Nursi supported his view by the Ḥadīth of the Prophet (PBUH) who said that in Islam, there is no difference between an Abyssinian slave and a leader of Quraish, once they have accepted Islam.[xvii]
Said Nursi strongly condemned nationalism as an artificial conception that destroys harmony in society, results in inequity and injustice. It is, therefore, extremely harmful for mankind. The next point of the paper deals with the thought of Bediuzzaman on the issue of damaging effect of nationalism on wellbeing of mankind.
Harm from Nationalism and Racism
The stance of Nursi towards racism and nationalism is perspicuous and firm. He identified the ideology, which considers a particular race to be superior or gives priority to race over religion as an “inauspicious, and harmful; it is nourished by devouring others, persists through hostility to others, and is aware of what it is doing. It is the case of enmity and disturbance.”[xviii]
The main harm caused by nationalism and racism, according to Nursi, is discrimination and injustice emanated from these ideologies. In his Letters Nursi affirmed that the principles of racism and nationalism do not follow justice and right, they are tyranny. They do not proceed on justice. For a ruler of racialist leanings, said Nursi, prefers those of the same race, and cannot act justly. Therefore, “the bonds of nationalism may not be set up in place of the bonds of religion; if they are, there will be no justice; right will disappear.”[xix]
To demonstrate harmfulness of negative nationalism and racialism, Nursi offered examples from history and contemporary events. According to the thinker, negative nationalism has caused an untold harm in history of Muslims during the Umayyad rule. Due to their combining some ideas of nationalism with their politics, the Umayyads vexed the world of Islam, and, in addition, drew many calamities on themselves.[xx] By planting their state on tribalism and putting the bonds of nationalism before those of Islam, as Nursi pointed out, they caused harm in two respects. Firstly, they offended the other nations and frightened them off. Secondly, since the principles of racialism and nationalism do not follow justice and right, they imposed tyranny toward other races.[xxi]
Looking at the political events of his time, Said Nursi accused the ideas of nationalism and racialism in disturbing harmony in European society and causing the growth of injustice, enmity and racial discriminations among nations, which eventually led to an overwhelming war [World War I] in Europe.[xxii]
By elaborating basic foundations and values of Western civilization, Bediuzzaman noticed that in modern Western political system the main principle for relations between peoples and communities was nationalism and racialism, which considered a particular race to be superior, or gave priority to race over religion. In The Twenty-Fifth Word Bediuzzaman stated that:
By reason of its philosophy, present-day civilization accepts ‘force’ as the point of support in the life of society. It takes as its aim ‘benefits,’ and considers the principle of its life to be ‘conflict.’ It considers the bond between communities to be ‘racialism and negative nationalism.’ While its aim is to provide ‘amusements’ for gratifying the appetites of the soul and increasing man’s needs. However, the mark of force is aggression.[xxiii]
Bediuzzaman further emphasized that a system, in which the bond between masses was based on negative nationalism or racialism, could not establish equality and justice within its society:
And since the benefits are insufficient to meet all needs, their mark is that everyone tussles and jostles over them. The mark of conflict is contention, and the mark of racialism, aggression, since it thrives on devouring others. Thus, it is because of these principles of civilization that despite all its virtues, it has provided a sort of superficial happiness for only twenty per cent of mankind and cast eighty per cent into distress and poverty.[xxiv]
Accordingly, negative nationalism and racialism for Nursi were one of the main reasons behind social, political and economic injustice prevailed in the modern world.[xxv] He believed that injustice and inequality inevitably lead to disunity, enmity and antagonism among different groups of the society. Discord and antagonism, in its turn, lead to weakness and, consequently, to the collapse of civilizations. Therefore he asserted that “the mark of negative nationalism and racialism is ghastly clashes, disastrous collisions, and their result, annihilation.”[xxvi]
This strong statement of Said Nursi was made in his Lemeāt (Gleams), a collection of writings in free verse on various subjects published in 1921, when he was a member of the Daru’l-Hihmeti’l-Islamiye.[xxvii] By that time the ideology of nationalism has became a greatly advanced political and social force in Europe as well as in the Muslim world. If negative nationalism and racism for Nursi were the main cause for the collapse of civilizations, what solutions did the intellectual suggest to avoid such devastation in the near future?
Solution for the Muslim World: the Ummah Identity
The main wisdom of humans as being created by God into nations and tribes, according to Said Nursi, is in favor of “knowing and assisting each other” instead of conflict, hostility and killing. Expounding the verse of “O mankind! We created you from a single [pair] of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other,”[xxviii] Said Nursi likened the Islamic world being separated into nations and tribes to an army being separated into ranks. As in the army, the arrangement of a division is not divided and split up for the purpose of hostile competition, but it is separated into ranks in order to serve the common aim of those who comprise it. In just the same way, Islamic society as a whole is a huge army which has been divided into tribes and groups. But it has a thousand and one aspects of unity as “its groups’ Creator is one and the same, their Provider is one and the same, their Prophet is one and the same, their qibla is one and the same, their Book is one and the same, their country is one and the same; all the same, a thousand things are one and the same.”[xxix] Therefore, Said Nursi concluded that being divided into groups and tribes should lead to mutual acquaintance and assistance, but not to antipathy and mutual hostility. He interpreted the above mentioned verse of the Qur‘ān accordingly: “I created you as peoples, nations, and tribes, so that you should know one another and the relations between you in social life, and assist one another; not so that you should regard each other as strangers, refusing to acknowledge one another, and nurturing hostility and enmity.”[xxx]
Bediuzzaman consequently condemned his contemporary Muslims for adapting a European ideology of nationalism as a foundation for political system and principle for relations between peoples, and warned them about damaging outcomes of the spreading of nationalistic sentiments in the Muslim world. He said that “the cunning European tyrants in particular awaken this [nationalism] among Muslims in negative fashion, so that they may divide them and devour them.”[xxxi]
Thus Nursi suggested that in the present Muslim world, when the peoples and tribes of Islam are most in need of one another, and each is more oppressed and more poverty-stricken than the others, and they are crushed beneath European domination, to regard one another as strangers due to the idea of nationalism and to consider one another to be enemies, is such a calamity that it cannot be described. According to the scholar, the only solution, which enables all Muslim nations, including Turks, with eternal and extensive success, justice, equality and concord, was Islam rather than alien ideas of nationalism or racialism. He declared:
O my Turkish brother! You watch out in particular! Your nationhood has fused with Islam and may not be separated from it. If you do separate them, you will be finished! All your glorious deeds of the past are recorded in the book of Islam’s deeds. Since these glorious deeds cannot be effaced from the face of the earth by any power, don’t you efface them from your heart due to the evil suggestions and devices of Satan![xxxii]
Accordingly for Said Nursi the nationhood of Muslims should be based on their religion, Islam, empowered by positive sentiments of nationalism. During the Sultan Reshad’s Rumelia tour in 1911 he declared:
Religious zeal and Islamic nationhood have completely fused in the Turks and Arabs, and may not now be separated. Islamic zeal is a luminous chain which is most strong and secure and is not born of this world. It is a support that is most firm and certain, and will not fail. It is an unassailable fortress that cannot be razed.[xxxiii]
Regarding the negative type of nationalism, in his Letters Said Nursi strongly affirmed that positive, sacred Islamic nationhood does not need negative nationalism and racialism.[xxxiv] The intellectual devoted his entire life to keep Muslim ethnic groups within this common nationhood and reinforce the unity of Muslims. Following the proclamation of the Constitution in 1908, he said:
Since in constitutionalism sovereignty belongs to the nation, the nation’s existence has to be demonstrated, and our nation is only Islam. For the strongest bond of Arab, Turk, Kurd, Albanian, Circassian, and Laz, and their firmest nationhood, is nothing other than Islam. The foundations of an array of states are being laid, due to negligence and strife incited through the revival of the partisanship and tribalism of the Age of Ignorance, which died one thousand three hundred years ago. We have seen this.[xxxv]
Accordingly, we may assume that the religious identity for Said Nursi was the uniting force of the entire Muslim ummah in the face of divisive influence of negative nationalism. This approach of Said Nursi towards the issue of identity had not changed even after the Turkish nation-state was firmly founded in 1923. His attitude during the Said Revolt in 1925 shows again that he considered all Muslims, despite their belonging to different ethnic groups such as Arab, Turk or Kurd, as one united nation. When the leader of the revolt Sheikh Said of Palu sent a letter to Nursi, requesting him to join the uprising, saying that if he did so they would be “victorious,” Nursi replied as follows: “The struggle you are embarking on will cause brother to kill brother and will be fruitless. For the Kurds and Turks are brothers. The Turkish nation has acted as the standard-bearer of Islam for centuries. It has produced millions of saints and given millions of martyrs. The sword may not be drawn against the sons of Islam’s heroic defenders, and I shall not draw mine!”[xxxvi]
This example perfectly illustrates that the intellectual considered all Muslim ethnic groups as members of the common united nationhood, Islam, even after the abolishment of the Caliphate in 1924 and almost all Muslim lands were colonized by European powers. He considered unity of Muslim nations around their common ummah identity to be the only force competent to enable all Muslims, regardless of their ethnic, financial and social differences, with eternal success, justice and harmony. He put forth an effort to maintain such unity of Muslims by both words and deeds. This position of Nursi did not change until the end of his life.
When the Baghdad Pact was signed in February 1955 between Turkey and Iraq, and was subsequently joined by Pakistan, Iran and Britain, Nursi sent a letter of congratulation to the prime minister of Turkey, Menderes and the president, Celal Bayar. In this letter Said Nursi explained that the greatest danger for the country lies in racialism. It had caused harm to the Muslim peoples in the past, and at that time there were again signs that it was being exploited by “covert atheists” with the aim of destroying Islamic brotherhood and preventing the Muslim nations uniting. The true nationality or nationhood of both Turks and Arabs, he felt, was Islam; their ‘Arabness’ and ‘Turkishness’ had fused with Islam. The new alliance (The Baghdad Pact), according to the scholar, would repulse the danger of racialism, and besides gaining for the Turkish nation “four hundred million brothers,” it would also gain for them the “friendship of eight hundred million Christians.”[xxxvii]
Thus Nursi encouraged cooperation with believing Christians as well the followers of other religions in order to achieve global peace and actual progress.
Solutions for Humanity: Return to the Revealed Laws
Bediuzzaman admired the present civilization for its achievements in technology and sciences. Yet, he was not very optimistic about the continuance of modern civilization unless it will adjust its basic principles, which were based on conflict, racialism and force. “While it should be the cure for mankind, it has become poison,” stated Nursi. “It has cast eighty per cent into penury and misery, and produced a false happiness for ten per cent. The remaining ten per cent it has left uneasily between the two. Commercial profits have been the tyrannical minority’s. But true happiness is happiness for all; Or at least salvation for the majority.”[xxxviii]
According to Said Nursi, modern Western civilization acts contrarily to the fundamental laws of the revealed religions. For that reason its evils have come to outweigh its good aspects, its errors and harmful aspects to preponderate over its benefits; and general tranquility and a happy worldly life, the true aims of civilization, have been destroyed.[xxxix] Thus he named the modern civilization as ‘low’ civilization, which has destroyed the principle of frugality and contentment, and increased wastefulness, greed, and covetousness. It has opened up the way to tyranny and what is unlawful. Through encouraging people to take advantage of the means of dissipation, it has also cast those needy unfortunates into total laziness. It has destroyed the desire for effort and work. It has encouraged depravity and dissipation, and wasted their lives on useless things. Furthermore, it has made those needy and lazy people ill. Through abuse and prodigality, it has been the means of spreading a hundred sorts of diseases.[xl]
As has been already discussed in the previous pages, Nursi considered racism and negative nationalism to be the main sources of conflict, enmity and aggression prevalent in the modern world. The actual remedies capable to combat the evils of the modern low civilization, as he pointed out, were unity, solidarity, cooperation, mutual sympathy and respect, the main principles of the true civilization based on the revealed laws. Only revealed laws can produce the true civilization, and offer true happiness and harmony. Nursi stated that “the revival of religion is the revival of the nation. The life of religion is the light of life.”[xli] Thus all men might find peace and salvation in revealed religion and the practice of its principles.
Accordingly, Said Nursi believed that the present-day civilization based on racism, conflict and aggression will change form, its system will fall apart.[xlii] Then the true civilization, founded on the positive truths of revelation, will emerge. On the case of Islam, Said Nursi was very optimistic about its positive role in building such civilization. Islam has the capacity to progress and comprises everything necessary to achieve true civilization, stated the intellectual. The Sharīʿa, the law of God, is the “balance and equilibrium of the earth.”[xliii] It is based on five positive principles:
Its point of support is truth instead of force, and the constant mark of truth is justice and balance. Security and well-being result from these, and villainy disappears. Its aim is virtue instead of self-interest, and the mark of virtue is love and mutual attraction. Happiness results from these, and enmity disappears. Its principle in life is co-operation instead of conflict and killing, and its mark is unity and solidarity, and the community is strengthened. Its service takes the form of guidance and direction instead of lust and passion. And the mark of guidance is progress and prosperity in way befitting humanity; The spirit is illumined and perfected in the way it requires. The way it unifies the masses repulses racialism and negative nationalism; It establishes in place of them the bonds of religion, patriotic relations, ties of class, and the brotherhood of belief. The mark of these bonds are sincere brotherhood, general well-being; defence in the case of external aggression.[xliv]
” God willing, through the strength of Islam in the future, the virtues of civilization will prevail, the face of the earth cleansed of filth, and universal peace be secured,”[xlv] assumed Nursi.
Regarding the relationship with non-Muslims, Nursi called all religious peoples of the world for cooperation against the destructive force of racism, atheism and secularism. In fact, as Þükran Vahide noticed, Nursi always urged his students to act tolerantly and peaceably toward followers of other paths and to return any criticism or aggression with good will, and above all to not allow political differences to cause disunity and so aid irreligion.[xlvi] Nursi encouraged cooperation with believing Christians as well he personally initiated relations with the Christian leaders. For instance, he sent copies of Risale-i Nur to Pope in Rome; and, in response to this, received a letter of thanks from the Vatican dated February 22, 1951. Moreover, during his stay in Istanbul in the spring and summer of 1953, Nursi visited Athenagoras, the Greek Orthodox patriarch of Istanbul.[xlvii]
In sum, from the viewpoint of Risale-i Nur, the main remedy for the evils of present-day hostility and antagonism is the creation of a system based on the revealed laws, which propagates global peace, mutual understanding and solidarity.
In conclusion we assume that Said Nursi equalized the modern ideology of nationalism to racism and warned about its destructive outcomes. According to him, giving priority to race over religion or claim for superiority of a certain nation over other nations inevitably leads to problems of racism that destroys harmony in society, results in inequity and enmity. Solely unity, harmony, accord and solidarity among members make a society able to function justly and further reinforce it towards progress. On the other hand, disunity, discord and antagonism, according to Bediuzzaman, no doubt, lead to weakness and, consequently, to the collapse of civilizations.
The only salvation from aggression and injustice prevalent in the modern world for Nursi was the return to the revealed laws of God. The establishment of equality, mutual assistance and respect among all different nations of the world is the only way that could bring peace, harmony, happiness, justice and prosperity to every members of humankind. According to Said Nursi, such process of the establishment of mutual assistance and equality, in order to be righteous and long-lasting, should be reinforced with the Shari’ah, the Law of God, and the Islamic identity should occupy the highest position in the identity hierarchy of Muslims.
Accordingly, Said Nursi provided the actual framework for improvement of welfare of mankind. These suggestions continue being practical in our days, when the problem of racism is still one of the main calamities in the 21th century. Do we follow the recommendations of Nursi to achieve global peace and harmony, and join all together to build a true civilization capable to create real happiness for all levels of society regardless of their racial, ethnic, financial and religious differences; or continue living in the age of total war, hatred and enmity, it depends on us.
[i] For instance, a number of the United Nations World Conferences Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance (WCAR) were held by the UNESCO to struggle against racial discrimination, xenophobic ideologies and behavior. The most current World Conference was held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 2009.
[iv] According to unofficial sources, in 2007 there were at least 100,000 skinheads in the Russian Federation. On 28 July 2009 the Interior Minister of the RF Rashid Nurgaliev asserted that, according to the records of the ministry of Interior Affairs, the number of those who actively take part in various extremist movements – from national organizations to fanatic groups – is about 200,000. See, Rashid Nurgaliev, “MVD Rossii: Osobennosty Stanovleniya i Razvitiya,” Rossiyskaya Gazeta, <http://www.rg.ru/2009/07/28/nurgaliev.html>, accessed 24 September 2009.
[viii] For instance, see, Hans Kohn, Nationalism and Imperialism in the Hither East, (New York: Howard Fertig, 1969), 18-22. For a further definitions of nationalism see, Elmira Akhmetova, Ideas of Muslim Unity at the Age of Nationalism: A Comparative Study of the Concept of Ummah in the Writings of Musa Jārullāh and Said Nursi, (Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2009).
[ix] When the word racialism was coined (Oxford English Dictionary suggests that its first recorded use was in 1907), the word meant “belief in the superiority of particular race.” The word racism (first used in 1936, according to Oxford English Dictionary) is “the theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race. According to sociologists, the term racism generally refers to the socio-political effects pertaining to individual attitudes, institutional discrimination, and certain ideologies based on the concept of race. Racialism, on the other hand, is the basic epistemological position that races actually do exist, and there are significant differences between and among people of different races. In most of the cases, however, these two words are used synonymously. See, Moron Savant, “Between Racism and Racialism: What’s the Difference?,” Socyberty, <http://socyberty.com/sociology/between-racism-and-racialism-whats-the-difference>, accessed 10 July, 2010.
[xii] Said Nursi, Letters, translated from the Turkish by Þükran Vahide (Istanbul: Sözler, 2001), 379.
[xiii] For instance, Musa Jarullah, a Muslim Tatar scholar of Russia, also differentiated two types or levels of national sentiments. See, Elmira Akhmetova, “Musa Jarullah Bigiev (1875-1949): Political Thought of a Tatar Muslim Scholar,” Intellectual Discourse, vol. 16, no.1, 2008, 49-71.
[xv] Said Nursi, Letters, 381.
[xvi] See, Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, “Ghurbah as Paradigm for Muslim Life: A Risale-i Nur Worldview,” in Islam at the Crossroads: On the Life and Thought of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, edited by Ibrahim Abu-Rabiʾ (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003), 244.
[xxiii] S. Nursi, The Words, translated from the Turkish by Þükran Vahide (Istanbul: Sözler, 2004), 420.
[xxv] For further information on the relationship between nationalism and justice see, Elmira Akhmetova, “Nationalism in the Modern World: From the Viewpoint of Said Nursi,” Nursi Studies, <http://www.nursistudies.org/teblig.php?tno=456>, accessed 10 July 2010.
[xxvi] S. Nursi, The Words, 745.
[xxvii] On affiliation of Nursi to the Daru’l-Hikmeti’l-Islamiye, see, Þükran Vahide, Islam in Modern Turkey: An Intellectual Biography of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005), 136-141.
[xxix] S. Nursi, Letters, 379-380.
[xxxiii] Said Nursi, The Damascus Sermon, translated from the Turkish by Þükran Vahide (Istanbul: Sözler, 1996), 60.
[xxxv] S. Nursi, The Damascus Sermon, 83.
[xxxvi] Þ. Vahide, Islam in Modern Turkey, 182.
[xxxix] S. Nursi, The Damascus Sermon, 14, 128-129.
[xlii] S. Nursi, The Words, 745; S. Nursi, The Damascus Sermon, 38.
[xlv] S. Nursi, The Damascus Sermon, 38.
[xlvi] Þ. Vahide, Islam in modern Turkey, 241-242.